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U.S.中国贸易争端 理解冲突

A guide and helpful resources related to the ongoing trade conflict between the U.S. 和中国.

最近的发展是什么?

美国和中国卷入了一场持续的贸易争端,在2018年夏季几个月变得越来越紧张.

当美国贸易代表办公室(USTR)在结束对中国贸易行为的延伸调查后,宣布正在考虑对1个中国国家征收关税时,争端正式开始,300件中国货, 价值500亿美元.

The announcement came months after a visit to Beijing by U.S. 当时,唐纳德·特朗普总统和他的政府的成员表达了他们对中国当局支持或不惩罚不公平贸易行为的担忧, 包括知识产权盗窃. 参观期间, 中国当局曾保证,他们将实施更严格的执法规定. 然而, after several months and an extensive investigation into Chinese trade practices, U.S. 官员们得出的结论是,几乎没有什么变化,中国的贸易行为对美国工业造成了不应有的伤害.

列表1

6月15日, 2018, 美国贸易代表办公室(USTR)发布了一份清单,列出了价值340亿美元的中国进口产品,这些产品具有“重大工业技术”,根据1974年《电竞竞猜app》第301条,将被征收25%的进口关税. 第301条授权美国总统对违反国际贸易或条约的行为和/或对美国商业造成不适当损害的行为采取行动. 这是第一个列表, 7月6日生效, 2018, 受影响的成品金属, 机械, electrical equipment and industrial goods. China responded immediately with tariffs in kind on U.S. 对中国的出口,包括对美国农业部门至关重要的出口,如大豆.

列表2

那时, an additional list of $16 billion in Chinese imports was put forward for public consultation. 一旦这个过程完成, the USTR released the final second list of tariffs on Chinese goods, 于8月23日生效, 2018. The second list affected medical supplies, 药品, agriculture and agricultural 机械 and textiles, 等. Once again, China responded in kind and filed a complaint with the World Trade Organization.

列表3

The trade war further escalated on September 17, 2018年,美国宣布将对价值2000亿美元的中国进口商品征收10%的关税. 这些关税将于2018年9月24日生效,并将于2019年1月增加到25%. 然而, 2018年12月, Washington and Beijing announced a a truce in the trade dispute, prompting Washington to extend the date on which the 25% tariff would take effect to March 2, 2019. Shortly before the truce was set to expire, 华盛顿宣布将进一步推迟征收25%的关税,直到一个无限期的日期. 然而, on May 5, 2019, Washington announced it would impose the 25% tariff effective May 10.

与清单3相关的产品, 尽管广泛, did exclude some products that had initially been considered as part of the trade action, including consumer products such as electronics, 儿童汽车座椅和自行车头盔, 以及某些化学产品.

列表4

当时的美国.S. 美国政府宣布了清单3,并警告称,如果中国进一步报复,它将对另外3000亿美元的中国商品征收关税, which would effectively place tariffs on all Chinese imports into the United States. China did retaliate, imposing tariffs on an additional $60 billion in U.S. goods, including items such as consumer alcohol products and cooking oils.

The United States announced that it would be putting forward a fourth list of products, but would conduct a public consultation process in advance of imposing any tariffs. Submission for comment were due by June 17, 2019. 然而,在2019年6月28日,美国.S. President Donald Trump announced that the U.S. 和中国 would be resuming talks and a result he agreed to put a hold on any new tariffs. 然而, 他没有提出与中国达成潜在解决方案或征收清单4关税的时间表.

8月. 1, 2019, President Trump announced via social media that the U.S. would be imposing a 10% tariff on items set out in 列表4 effective Sept 1. The announcement came as a surprise to many, 特别是几天前总统还表示,2020年前不太可能对中国采取额外的贸易行动.

据称,这一声明是对中国推迟履行购买更多美国国债承诺的回应.S. 农产品. Industry groups quickly responded with concern, noting 列表4——比以往任何一份清单都多——包含成品消费品,因此几乎不可能避免将关税的额外成本转嫁到消费者身上.

在接下来的几天里,中国政府允许人民币贬值,这促使美国采取行动.S. 美国财政部将中国列为汇率操纵国,并指责中国试图通过贬值人民币来在全球市场上进行不公平的竞争,从而使中国的出口产品比美国的出口产品更具竞争力.

为什么会这样?

当前的U.S. administration has made trade policy a key tenet of its foreign policy objectives. President Trump has a strong focus on trade relations and believes strongly that the U.S. must work to create more balanced trade relationships so that bilateral trade between the U.S. and a trading partner does not result in excessive trade surpluses or deficits on either side.

The United States’ largest bilateral trade deficit, by far, is with China. 2017年,美国.S. maintained a trade deficit with China of $375 billion, 这一数字是2002年中国加入世界贸易组织时的三倍. 像这样, China and its trade practices have been a focal point for the USTR and Department of Commerce.

Since China’s inclusion into the WTO in 2001, U.S. 各行各业的公司, but particularly the technology sector, 已经抱怨中国在规避WTO制定的规则,非法侵占美国的知识产权.S. 公司为了自己的利益. 这些活动通常被认为是中国政府“中国制造2025”政策的一部分, 它为中国制造业在价值链上的提升制定了路线图,同时减少对高价值进口的依赖.

2018年10月, 商务部举行了一场公开听证会,向法律部门索取更多信息, 业界及学术界代表. 聆讯时的反馈, combined with information obtained by the Section 301 committee, 结果认定中国当局的做法是不合理的和/或歧视性的,并对美国造成了不应有的伤害.S. commerce and estimated the associated value to be $50 billion annually.

在此决定之后, the USTR published a list of approximately 1,300种与中国进口产品相关的产品编码将被征收25%的关税,以抵消美国经济活动的损失.S. 因为中国不公平的贸易行为.

对拟议关税的回应

针对中国的贸易行动引起了许多行业集团(科技行业以外)的担忧,中国已成为这些行业集团的关键制造基地和/或在其国际供应链中不可或缺的一环. These include apparel, consumer packaged goods, agriculture and several others. 征收关税将迫使这些行业的企业大幅增加与进口相关的落地成本, forcing them to raise their prices or become less competitive in the international market.

China’s retaliation has been equal cause for concern, particularly in the U.S. transportation and agricultural industries, which rely heavily on exports to China.

经济的影响

While views vary on the degree to which these trade barriers will impact the U.S. economy, many economists argue the imposition of tariffs by the U.S. 和/或中国的做法只会破坏经济稳定,引发金融市场投机.

很少有人认为,关税会影响中国知识产权做法的改变,只会推高双方企业的成本,扰乱美国跨国企业赖以在国际市场保持竞争力的全球供应链.

The initial list of $34 billion in tariffs will primarily affect finished metal goods, 机械, electrical equipment and industrial goods. The subsequent list – should it resemble the balance of the initial list of 1,300 products announced by the USTR – will affect medical supplies, 药品, agriculture and agricultural 机械 and textiles, 等.

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