5月19日, 2019, 美国政府, 加拿大 和墨西哥 宣布 that they had reached an agreement that would see the U.S. remove previously imposed 关税 on Canadian and Mexican imports of 钢和铝 products that pitted U.S. against its neighbors in an ongoing trade dispute. 在回应, 加拿大 和墨西哥 removed the countermeasures they put in place (including 关税 in 墨西哥 and surtaxes in 加拿大) in response to the U.S. 关税.
就美国而言.S.加拿大的关系, the parties agreed that neither a tariff-rate quota nor an absolute quota would be applied to Canadian 钢和铝 imports. 然而, they also agreed that one party could impose 关税 of 25% on steel and 10% on aluminum on another party if that party’s 钢和铝 imports exceeded historical levels. The 关税 would only be applied after a consultation period with the offending party and the offending party would only be able to retaliate in the affected sector.
While the 关税 on 钢和铝 imports from 加拿大 和墨西哥 have been lifted, 关税 on those products continue to be imposed on imports from other countries, 包括欧盟和中国.
3月8日, 2018, the government of the United States issued proclamations that duties of 25% would be placed on all steel imports into the U.S. 对所有铝进口征收10%的关税. The 关税 were being imposed on the grounds of national security in accordance with Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962.
然而, the Department of Commerce issued temporary exemptions on the 关税 for a number of trade partners, 包括加拿大, 墨西哥, 欧盟, 澳大利亚, 巴西和其他几个国家. All other countries, including Russia, China, Turkey and others took effect on March 23, 2018.
The exemptions issued had an expiry date of June 1, 2018 to provide additional time for negotiation with the EU and the potential conclusion of negotiations with 加拿大 和墨西哥 around the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). 在过渡时期, the government had successfully negotiated new terms of trade for 钢和铝 products with several countries, but not with key steel importers such asthe EU, 加拿大, 和墨西哥. 因此，在6月1日st，美国.S. 政府取消豁免, applying the 关税 to imports of 钢和铝 from those trading partners.
The EU, 加拿大, 和墨西哥 denounced the decision noting they were critical allies of the U.S. 也不会对国家安全构成威胁. All three also 宣布 they would be putting forward countermeasures to equally penalize U.S. 行业. The EU further noted it would be taking the matter to a World Trade Organization dispute resolution arbitration.
对于一个广泛的常见问题，关于美国.S. 对进口钢铁和铝征收关税， 请按此处.
作为对美国取消制裁的回应.S. exemptions on Canadian 钢和铝 imports, the government of 加拿大 immediately 宣布 a long list of 关税 of 25% and 10% on approximately $16 billion of U.S. imports (comparable to the value of Canadian 钢和铝 exports to the U.S.) that would take effect on July 1, 2018 after a brief public consultation period. The list includes numerous metal products, but also a substantial number of consumer goods.
Political observers have suggested the list of counter-关税 was strategically compiled to create economic hardship in key U.S. constituencies whose Congressional representatives are influential to the president and/or the balance of power in Congress with the hope they could persuade the administration to reconsider.
美国.S. is currently investigating the possibility of imposing a 25% tariff on Canadian auto imports under Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, the same act under which the 钢和铝 关税 were imposed.
附加税救援 & 配额
In early October 2018, the government of 加拿大 宣布 significant amendments to the countermeasures imposed on U.S. 钢和铝, including the opportunity for importers to apply for one-off exemptions based on exceptional circumstances such as a shortage of domestic supply.
除了, the government released two lists of products to which surtax relief would be applied retroactive to July 1, 2018 when the surtaxes were first applied. One list of products provided indefinite surtax relief; the other provided surtax relief for a defined period ending December 31, 2018.
The surtax relief was being provided with the understanding that supply chains in North America were tightly integrated and that some businesses in 加拿大 were being impacted by the application of surtaxes on certain imported steel products.
At the same time the government made the announcement surrounding surtax relief, it also 宣布 it would be imposing quotas on imports of select steel product categories, including:
The quotas are based on volumes considered normal on a historical basis. Volumes that exceed historically normal levels will be subject to a 25% surtax.
除了, an import permit will be required to bring into 加拿大 goods that fall under these product categories during the quota period. 一旦达到了配额, the 25% surtax will apply and permits will no longer be granted until the quota period renews.
The quotas are being implemented to safeguard against the offloading of steel surpluses on international markets resulting from the imposition of 关税 on 钢和铝 imports into the U.S.
To download the lists outlining the products for which surtax relief is being provided, 请按此处.
To download a full list of product classifications affected by 加拿大’s surtax countermeasures, 请按此处.
On June 5, 2018, 墨西哥 宣布 it would impose 关税 of between 7% and 25% on $650 million in U.S. imports into 墨西哥 that would take effect immediately. The list of affected imports includes agricultural goods, metal products and other industrial goods.
类似于U.S. products targeted by the Canadian government, observers suggest 墨西哥’s list of retaliatory 关税 are designed to harm key U.S. congressional districts to create discontent with the U.S. trade measures in Congress and put pressure on the president to reconsider.
要了解美国的一些国家.S. products to which the Mexican 关税 will apply, 请按此处.
On June 6, 2018, 欧盟 officially 宣布 it would impose 关税 on €2.价值80亿美元的美国国债.S. 将于2018年7月生效. On June 20, the EU Trade Commissioner 宣布 the full list of EU 关税, which totalled $3.40亿美元.S. imports and included iconic American products, such as bourbon whiskey, motorcycles and orange juice.
Shortly after the 关税 were 宣布, motorcycle manufacturer Harley Davidson stated publicly it would be forced to offshore current U.S. production of EU-bound motorcycles to avoid the EU 关税.
美国.S. is currently investigating the possibility of imposing a 20% tariff on EU auto imports under Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, the same act under which the 钢和铝 关税 were imposed.
Livingston will continue to monitor the situation and provide updates regarding specific U.S. products affected by EU countermeasures.
欲了解完整的美国.S. products on which the EU has imposted 关税, 请按此处.
美国的声明.S. was lifting its exemptions on 钢和铝 关税 was met with widespread discontent within government, 产业界和劳动界.
国会共和党人, including House Speaker Paul Ryan denounced the move as being counterproductive to U.S. 利益. 众议院 & Means Chairman Kevin Chambers expressed similar sentiment as did Lamar Alexander, 参议院卫生委员会主席, 教育, 劳工及退休金委员会.
Many members or Congress were caught off guard by the decision to remove exemptions. 结果是, Republican Senator Bob Corker unveiled on June 6, 2018 legislation that would require Congress to approve any trade actions by the president that are being carried out on the grounds of national security. 然而, Senate Republicans blocked a vote on the bill.
Despite the intent of the 关税 being to protect America’s national 钢和铝 行业 and their workers，美国nited Steel Workers – the largest union representing industrial workers – released a statement objecting to the lifting of exemptions.
Industry groups – particularly those for which 钢和铝 are critical materials – had long been lobbying Washington to reconsider the imposition of 关税, noting they would be forced to pass the additional cost along to consumers.
Industry groups and members of Congress have also expressed concern that the 关税 will sour relations between the U.S. 和主要贸易伙伴, leading to a prolonged renegotiation of NAFTA (which has already been under renegotiation for almost one year) and a further setback of trade talks with the EU.
尽管遭到反对，美国政府还是采取了行动.S. administration has remained resolute in its decision to impose the 关税 and has not yet suggested it will reconsider the 关税 or lower them.
Livingston will continue to monitor the progress of discussions regarding the trade dispute between the US 以及它的主要贸易伙伴 and will provide critical updates as they emerge.
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