2018年12月30日，综合 & 《电竞竞猜app排行》生效, eliminating the vast majority of tariffs on imports among those nations that had ratified the agreement. Today, these include 日本, 加拿大, 澳大利亚, 墨西哥, Singapore, 新西兰 and Vietnam.
The CPTPP has the potential to have profound implications on Canadian trade and how Canadian businesses source and sell their wares abroad. The new trade deal will offer unprecedented access to burgeoning 市场s in Asia and South America, 并打算取消99%的关税.
除了货物, 该协议使电竞竞猜app贸易自由化, a critical development for 加拿大 whose GDP relies heavily on a service sector that would benefit significantly from access to government procurement and financial service opportunities abroad.
The agreement also solidifies 加拿大’s international trading relationship by complementing existing trade deals, 比如USMCA和协会.
The Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP) is a free trade agreement between 11 nations that will eliminates tariffs on the vast majority of goods traded between the participating nations.
加拿大是该协议最初的签署国之一, 跨太平洋伙伴关系协定, 一项最初涉及四个国家的贸易协定, 但后来增加到12个, 包括美国, 加拿大, 澳大利亚, 新西兰, 墨西哥, 秘鲁, 智利, 日本, 马来西亚, 文莱, 新加坡和越南.
Negotiations around the TPP were fraught with controversy over a number of critical issues, 包括投资者-国家纠纷制度(ISDS), the impact of low-cost labour in Southeast Asia on developed 市场s and impact of changes to intellectual property rights on key industries, 比如医疗保健和制药行业.
尽管有很多争论点, 这份由12个国家签署的协议在2016年底就已经准备就绪. 然而，一个新的美国.S. 政府, 由特朗普总统领导, 该国在其执政的第三天就退出了该协议. Many believed America’s 撤军 would be too large an economic void for the remaining members to carry on without U.S. 参与.
在U后面.S. 撤军, TPP似乎已不复存在, but in the summer of 2017 the remaining 11 members chose to revisit the possibility of proceeding with a revamped Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership or CPTPP. The decision was spurred on by a mutual desire to foster freer trade between nations and continents, a sentiment that became particularly critical in the face of what seemed to be a rising tide of global protectionism.
Research during the CPTPP negotiation period showed the CPTPP would still be advantageous to its signatory states, 尤其是加拿大, 即使没有你.S. 参与. Canwest基金会最近的一项研究, 一个专门研究加拿大西部问题的智库, CPTPP可能会增加2个百分点.CPTPP国家中43%的出口. It would also raise real GDP across the trade bloc by generating an estimated $22 billion in economic activity by 2035.
有趣的是, the study reveals 加拿大 would fare better under a CPTPP than the original TPP12 with an increase in economic activity of $3.40亿美元对2美元.80亿年. 该研究指出，除了乳制品行业, 加拿大’s agricultural sector stands to gain the most from the CPTPP while the dairy sector will be adversely affected by competition from 新西兰 and textiles and apparel slightly affected by increased competition from Southeast Asia.
CPTPP与全面经济贸易协定(协会), the provisionally applied free trade agreement between 加拿大 and the 欧洲an Union, Canadian businesses will have access to the vast majority of the world’s most critical trade 市场s and, 也许最重要的是, 与已成为全球供应链关键环节的国家进行自由贸易.g. 新加坡、越南等.).
加拿大工业将从加拿大参与CPTPP中获得巨大利益. 加拿大 currently has an export disadvantage in bilateral trade among member nations with which it does not currently hold a free trade agreement (seven out of 11 countries). Those countries typically have much higher tariffs for Canadian goods entering their shores than 加拿大 has for the goods imported into 加拿大 from CPTPP nations.
取消关税将创造一个公平的竞争环境 and give far freer access to Canadian industries looking for export opportunities in CPTPP 市场s, 特别是在亚洲. 据估计，CPTPP每年将节省4.28亿美元的关税, 主要来自与日本的贸易, 越南和澳大利亚. 进一步估计CPTPP将使进口增加3美元.60亿年.
加拿大的牛肉, poultry and pork industries would stand to gain substantially from 市场 access to 日本 as would producers of machinery who would be able to fill heightened demand for their wares in 澳大利亚 and 马来西亚.
While most parties agreed on the critical aspects of the CPTPP, certain bones of contention remained.
The removal of intellectual property protections that were introduced and insisted on by the U.S. 是CPTPP谈判初期的主要目标吗. 最初的TPP协议允许延长药品的专利期限, a cause for concern among health advocates who noted the changes could delay the availability of more affordable generic drugs, which could make some drugs financially inaccessible to those who 需要 them urgently and/or place greater financial burden on 加拿大’s already over-burdened health-care system.
对加拿大谈判代表来说，供应管理也是一个非常棘手的问题. 加拿大’s dairy industry was very unhappy that its government had conceded additional dairy imports in the 协会 agreement and were equally upset about additional concessions related to dairy imports in the CPTPP. 这将进一步加剧的额外进入美国.S. to the Canadian dairy 市场 as part of the United States-墨西哥-加拿大 Agreement (USMCA).
类似于NAFTA-USMCA的谈判立场, 加拿大政府在性别平等方面寻求进步的规定, 环境保护和劳工权利.
针对加拿大的企业, 加入CPTPP的综合影响, 以及与欧洲达成的协会协议也不过分. 对于许多企业来说, such agreements open the doors to enormous 市场s of opportunity with limited competition from other developed nations. 它还有助于打破对美国的依赖.S. 市场, which has shown recently a desire to pull away from open borders with 加拿大 vis-à-vis anti-dumping and countervailing duties on Canadian lumber imports, 以及对进口钢铁和铝征收关税.
利文斯顿 will continue to monitor the progress of developments regarding the ratification of the CPTPP and will continue to provide updates.